IT Security Incident

IT Security Incident but no incident response capability?

This is a list of the major steps that should be performed when an IT professional believes that a serious incident has occurred and the organisation does not have an incident response capability available.

  1. Document everything. This effort includes every action that is performed, every piece of evidence, and every conversation with users, system owners, and others regarding the incident.
  2. Find a coworker who can provide assistance. Handling the incident will be much easier if two or more people work together. For example, one person can perform actions while the other documents them.
  3. Analyse the evidence to confirm that an incident has occurred. Perform additional research as necessary (e.g., Internet search engines, software documentation) to better understand the evidence. Reach out to other technical professionals within the organisation for additional help.
  4. Notify the appropriate people within the organisation. This should include the chief information officer (CIO), the head of information security, and the local security manager. Use discretion when discussing details of an incident with others; tell only the people who need to know and use communication mechanisms that are reasonably secure. (If the attacker has compromised email services, do not send emails about the incident.)
  5. Notify the National Cyber Security Centre and/or other external organisations for assistance in dealing with the incident.
  6. Stop the incident if it is still in progress. The most common way to do this is to disconnect affected systems from the network. In some cases, firewall and router configurations may need to be modified to stop network traffic that is part of an incident, such as a denial of service (DoS) attack.
  7. Preserve evidence from the incident. Make backups (preferably disk image backups, not file system backups) of affected systems. Make copies of log files that contain evidence related to the incident.
  8. Wipe out all effects of the incident. This effort includes malware infections, inappropriate materials (e.g., pirated software), Trojan horse files, and any other changes made to systems by incidents. If a system has been fully compromised, rebuild it from scratch or restore it from a known good backup.
  9. Identify and mitigate all vulnerabilities that were exploited. The incident may have occurred by taking advantage of vulnerabilities in operating systems or applications. It is critical to identify such vulnerabilities and eliminate or otherwise mitigate them so that the incident does not recur.
  10. Confirm that operations have been restored to normal. Make sure that data, applications, and other services affected by the incident have been returned to normal operations.
  11. Create a final report. This report should detail the incident handling process. It also should provide an executive summary of what happened and how a formal incident response capability would have helped to handle the situation, mitigate the risk, and limit the damage more quickly.
IOT Security

IoT Attack Surface Areas

IoT Attack Surface Areas
Attack Surface Vulnerability
Ecosystem (general)
  • Interoperability standards
  • Data governance
  • System wide failure
  • Individual stakeholder risks
Ecosystem Access Control
  • Implicit trust between components
  • Enrolment security
  • Decommissioning system
  • Lost access procedures
Device Memory
  • Cleartext usernames
  • Cleartext passwords
  • Third-party credentials
  • Encryption keys
Device Physical Interfaces
  • Firmware extraction
  • User CLI
  • Admin CLI
  • Privilege escalation
  • Reset to insecure state
  • Removal of storage media
  • Tamper resistance
  • Debug port
  • Device ID/Serial number exposure
Device Web Interface
  • SQL injection
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Cross-site Request Forgery
  • Username enumeration
  • Weak passwords
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
Device Firmware
  • Hardcoded credentials
  • Sensitive information disclosure
  • Sensitive URL disclosure
  • Encryption keys
  • Encryption (Symmetric, Asymmetric)
  • Firmware version display and/or last update date
  • Backdoor accounts
  • Vulnerable services (web, ssh, tftp, etc.)
  • Security related function API exposure
  • Firmware downgrade
Device Network Services
  • Information disclosure
  • User CLI
  • Administrative CLI
  • Injection
  • Denial of Service
  • Unencrypted Services
  • Poorly implemented encryption
  • Test/Development Services
  • Buffer Overflow
  • UPnP
  • Vulnerable UDP Services
  • DoS
  • Device Firmware OTA update block
  • Replay attack
  • Lack of payload verification
  • Lack of message integrity check
Administrative Interface
  • SQL injection
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Cross-site Request Forgery
  • Username enumeration
  • Weak passwords
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Security/encryption options
  • Logging options
  • Two-factor authentication
  • Inability to wipe device
Local Data Storage
  • Unencrypted data
  • Data encrypted with discovered keys
  • Lack of data integrity checks
  • Use of static same enc/dec key
Cloud Web Interface
  • SQL injection
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Cross-site Request Forgery
  • Username enumeration
  • Weak passwords
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Transport encryption
  • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Two-factor authentication
Third-party Backend APIs
  • Unencrypted PII sent
  • Encrypted PII sent
  • Device information leaked
  • Location leaked
Update Mechanism
  • Update sent without encryption
  • Updates not signed
  • Update location writable
  • Update verification
  • Update authentication
  • Malicious update
  • Missing update mechanism
  • No manual update mechanism
Mobile Application
  • Implicitly trusted by device or cloud
  • Username enumeration
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Weak passwords
  • Insecure data storage
  • Transport encryption
  • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Two-factor authentication
Vendor Backend APIs
  • Inherent trust of cloud or mobile application
  • Weak authentication
  • Weak access controls
  • Injection attacks
  • Hidden services
Ecosystem Communication
  • Health checks
  • Heartbeats
  • Ecosystem commands
  • Deprovisioning
  • Pushing updates
Network Traffic
  • LAN
  • LAN to Internet
  • Short range
  • Non-standard
  • Wireless (WiFi, Z-wave, Zigbee, Bluetooth)
  • Protocol fuzzing
  • Authentication/Authorization related values (session key, token, cookie, etc.) disclosure
  • Reusing of session key, token, etc.
  • Device to device authentication
  • Device to mobile Application authentication
  • Device to cloud system authentication
  • Mobile application to cloud system authentication
  • Web application to cloud system authentication
  • Lack of dynamic authentication
  • User data disclosure
  • User/device location disclosure
  • Differential privacy
Hardware (Sensors)
  • Sensing Environment Manipulation
  • Tampering (Physically)
  • Damaging (Physically)

What’s DDoS?

SEO Security

SEO Security